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TT 206 
.114 
1912 
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METAL SPINNING 

PRINCIPLES OF THE ART, AND TOOLS 
AND METHODS USED 



SECOND EDITION 




MACHINERY'S REFERENCE BOOK NO. 57 
PUBLISHED BY MACHINERY, NEW YORK 



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NUMBER 57 



METAL SPINNING 



Second Edition 



CONTENTS 



Principles of Metal Spinning, by C. Tuells - - - 3 

Tools and Methods Used in Metal Spinning-, by William 
A. Painter 15 



Copyright, 1912, The Industrial Press, Publishers of Machinery 
49-55 Lafayette Street, New York City 



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CHAPTER I 



PRINCIPLES OP METAL SPINNING* 

Metal spinning, that process of sheet metal goods manufacturing 
which deals with the forming of sheet metal into circular shapes of 
great variety by means of the lathe, forms and hand-tools, is full of 
kinks and schemes peculiar to itself. It is the purpose of this treatise 
to give a description of spinning in general, and to outline some of 
the methods and tools used in spinning for rapid production. 

The products of metal spinning are used in a great many lines of 
manufacture. Examples of this work are chandelier parts, cooking 
utensils, silver and brittania hollow-ware, automobile lamps, cane- 
heads and many other sheet metal specialties. Brass, copper, zinc, 
aluminum, iron, soft steel, and, in fact nearly all metals yield readily 
to the spinner's skill. At best spinning is physically hard work, and 
the softer the stock, the easier and quicker the spinner can transform 
it into the required product. 

There are but two practical ways of forming pieces of sheet metal 
into hollow circular articles: by dies and by spinning. By far the 
cheapest and best method of producing quantities of this class of 
work is by the use of dies, but there are many cases where it is im- 
practical or impossible to follow this course. Dies are expensive and 
there is constant danger of breakage, whereas spinning forms are 
easily and cheaply made and are almost never damaged by use be- 
yond a reasonable amount of wear. Thus it will be seen that when 
the production is small, it does not pay to make costly dies. Again, 
the styles or designs of many articles that are spun are constantly 
being changed; if made by dies each change would necessitate a new 
die, while in spinning merely a. new wooden form is required — and 
sometimes the old form can be altered, costing practically nothing. 
Still other advantages of spinning are that in working soft steel, a 
much cheaper grade may be spun than can be drawn with dies; 
beads may be rolled at the edges of shells at little expense; experi- 
mental pieces may be made quickly, and, added to these features 
comes the fact that very difficult work that cannot possibly be made 
with dies can be spun with comparative ease. It must not be con- 
strued from the above that spinning is to be preferred to die work 
in all or even in the majority of cases, because, on the contrary, die 
work is a more economical method of manufacture, and should always 
be used when possible on production work. The cases already cited 
are merely given to point out some o€ the instances in which, for 
economical reasons, spinning is to be preferred to die work. 



* Machinery, December, 1909. 



4 No. 57— METAL SPINNING 

The Spinning- Lathe 

The principal tool used in the operation of spinning is the spinning 
lathe, shown in Fig. 1. While in many respects this machine is simi- 
lar to any other lathe, it is built without back-gears, carriage or lead- 
screw, is very rigid in construction, and, on the whole, very much 
resembles a speed lathe. Like other lathes, the spinning lathe is fit- 
ted with a cone pulley (preferably of wood, because of its lightness 
and gripping qualities), allowing the use of four or five different 
speeds. Speed is an important factor in spinning. Arbitrary rules 
for spinning speeds cannot be given, as the thicker the stock the 




Fig. 1 Spinning: Lathe 

slower must be the speed; thus while 1/32-inch iron can be readily 
spun at 600 revolutions, 1/16-inch iron would necessitate reducing 
the speed to 400 revolutions per minute. Zinc spins best at from 
1,000 to 1,400 revolutions; copper works well at 800 to 1,000; brass 
and aluminum require practically the same speed, from 800 to 1,200; 
while the comparatively slow speed of 300 to 600 revolutions is effect- 
ive on iron and soft steel. Brittania and silver spin best at speeds 
from 800 to 1,000 revolutions. 

One of the essential parts of the spinning lathe is the T-rest. The 
base of this rest is movable on the ways of the lathe, and it has at 
the side nearest the operator, a stud about four inches in diameter 
and six inches high, through which is swiveled the T-rest proper. 



PRINCIPLES OF METAL SPINNING 5 

As the illustration shows, provision is made for raising and lowering 
the rest, and the entire rest may be clamped in any desired position 
by means of the hand-wheel shown beneath the ways. The rest proper 
consists of an arm, 12 to 15 inches long, similar to a wood turner's 
rest, and through the face of this arm are from twelve to sixteen 
closely spaced %-inch holes. These holes are to receive the pin 
against which the hand tools are held while spinning. The pin is 
three inches long and of %-inch steel, turned down on one end to 
loosely fit the holes in the rest. 

Another important part of the spinning lathe is the tail-center. 
This center is sometimes the ordinary dead center that is in general 




Fig. 2. Revolving Center 




Pig. 3. Sectional Spinning Chuck 

machine shop use, but nearly all spinners use the revolving center, 
shown in Fig. 2. The revolving center is % inch diameter (without 
taper) and about six inches long, and is fitted into the socket in which 
it runs; this socket is, in turn, fitted to the taper hole in the tail- 
stock. At the bottom of the hole in the socket are two steel buttons, 
hardened and ground convex on their faces. These buttons act as 
ball bearings and reduce friction to a minimum. 

Forms and Chucks for Spinning' 

The shape of a shell made by spinning is dependent on the form or 
chuck upon which the metal is spun. Forms are used for plain spin- 
ning where the shape of the shell will permit of its being readily 
taken from the form after the spinning has been completed; but when 
the shape of the shell is such that it will not "draw," as the molders 
say, it becomes necessary to employ sectional chucks, similar to the 



6 No. 57— METAL SPINNING 

one shown in Fig. 3. Generally speaking, spinning forms are made 
of kiln dried maple. After being bored and threaded to fit the lathe 
spindle, the spinner turns the maple block to agree with a templet 
shaped in outline to the sample shell. When no sample is furnished : 
the templet must be laid out from a sketch or drawing; in either 
case proper allowance is made for the thickness of the stock. When 
large quantities of shells are to be spun, all alike, the form is some- 
times made of lignum vitge. Another method is to turn the maple 
form small enough so that one shell may be spun and cemented to it 
and then this metal-cased form is used to spin the balance of the 
shells. For continuous spinning, forms are made of cast iron or steel, 
which of course makes a most satisfactory surface to spin on and 
gives indefinite service. 




Xa ch in cj-t/^A'. T. 



Fig. 4. Quick Method of Spinning Difficult 
Shell Without Sectional Chuck 



Fig. 5. Spinning on 
Plugs 



A sectional or "split" chuck, as it is sometimes called, is, as the 
name implies, a spinning chuck or form which may be taken apart 
in sections after the shell has been spun over it. As before stated, 
this class of spinning chuck is only used when the finished shell could 
not be removed from an ordinary form after spinning. After a shell 
has been spun over a sectional chuck, the shell and the sections of 
the chuck are together pulled lengthwise from the core of the chuck. 
Then, starting with the key section, it is an easy matter to remove 
each section from the inside of the shell. As the sections are removed, 
they are replaced upon the core, slipped under the retaining flange and 
the chuck is ready for spinning a new shell. The whole operation of 
removing and replacing the sections of a chuck takes less time than 
it does to tell it, and, as the sections are of different sizes, it is easy 
to replace them in the proper order. Like other forms, sectional 
chucks are made of wood or metal, according to the requirements of 
the jcb. The core and retaining ring are first made from one piece 
and then the sections are turned in a continuous ring and split with 
a fine saw. In some cases it is necessary to add a small piece to the 
last section to make up for the stock lost in splitting the sections. 




PRINCIPLES OF METAL SPINNING 7 

Another kind of sectional chuck, known to the trade as a "plug" 
(shown in Fig. 5) is used extensively in some shops in cases where 
the shell must have projections or shoulders at both ends, and no 
bottom to the shell is required. In making the plug, which is always 
in two parts, the first half is turned to take the shell from one end 
to the center of the smallest diameter. Into the end of this part is 
bored a hole to which is fitted the end of the second part, which is 
afterwards turned to fit the shell. Over this two-part plug the shell 
is spun; then the bottom of the shell is cut out and the first half of 
the plug removed, thus allowing the shell to be withdrawn. The first 
part is then replaced and the plug is ready for use again. Fig. 4 
shows a method of spinning difficult shells that ordinarily would re- 
quire a sectional chuck. The shell shown at the left of Fig. 4 is first 
spun as far as the bulged part on an ordinary form that ends at this 




Fig. 6. Three Types of Followers 

point. Then after annealing, it is replaced on the form and while 
another operator holds the wooden .arm, supported with a pin in the 
T-rest, the spinner forms the metal o.round the bulge-shaped end of 
the arm. The arm, being stationary on the inside of the shell, acts as 
a continuation of the spinning form, and by this method as good a 
shell is obtained as could be spun with a sectional chuck. 

For spinning operations upon tubing or press-drawn tubes, steel 
arbors are generally used. Tubing may be readily spun upon an arbor 
and it can be reduced or expanded to comply with the shape of shell 
required much more quickly than the shell could be spun from the 
blank. 

Followers 

For holding the sheet metal blank to the spinning form, a block 
of wood known as the follower, is used (see Fig. 6). Followers are 
made to suit the shape of the work with which they are to be em- 
ployed, always being made with the largest possible bearing on the 
work; thus a shell with a flat bottom twelve inches in diameter would 
be turned with the aid of a follower having an 11%-inch face, while 
a shell with a 4-inch face wculd take a follower with a 3% -inch face. 
All shells do not have flat bottoms, consequently, in spinning such as 
do not, it becomes necessary to employ hollow followers. Hollow fol- 
lowers have their bearing surfaces turned, out to fit the ends of ihs 



jS/o. 57-METAL SPINNING 




PRINCIPLES OF METAL SPINNING 9 

forms with which they are to be used. In practice, the blank is held 
against the end of the spherical form with a small flat follower until 
enough of the shell has been spun to admit of the hollow follower 
being used. All followers are made with a lajge center hole in one 
end to receive the revolving tail-center. 

In starting to spin a difficult shell it sometimes happens that the 
necessarily small follower will not hold the blank. To prevent this 
slipping, the face of the follower is covered with emery cloth. Often, 
however, on rough work, the spinner will not stop to face the fol- 
lower, but will make a large shallow dent at the center of the blank; 
the extra pressure required to force the metal against the form will 
usually overcome the slipping tendency. 

Hand Tools 

Hand tools, in great variety, form the principal asset of the spin- 
ner's kit. Spinning tools are made of tool steel forged to the re- 
quired shapes, and are hardened and polished on the working end. 
The round steel from which they are made varies from y 2 inch to 
iy 2 inch in diameter, according to the class of work upon which they 
are to be used. The length of a spinning tool is about 2 feet, and it is 
fitted into a wooden handle 2 inches diameter and 18 inches long, 
making the total length of the handled tool about 3. feet, as shown in 
Fig. S. As the spinner holds this handle under the right armpit, he 
secures a great leverage upon the work and is better able to supply 
the physical power required to bring the metal to the desired shape. 

The commonest and by far the most useful of the spinning tools is 
the combination "point and ball" which together with a number of 
other tools, is shown in Fig. 11. This tool is used in doing the bulk 
of the spinning operations— for starting the work and bringing it 
approximately to the shape of the form. Its range of usefulness is 
large on account of the many different shapes that may be utilized by 
merely turning the tool in a different direction. Next in importance 
comes the flat or smoothing tool which, as the name implies, is for 
smoothing the shell and finishing any rough surfaces left by the point 
and ball tool. The fishtail tool, so named from its shape, is used prin- 
cipally in flaring the end of a shell from the inside, "spinning on 
air," as it is sometimes termed. This tool is used to good advantage 
in any place where it is necessary to stretch the metal to any extent, 
and its thin rounding edge proves useful in setting the metal into 
corners and narrow grooves. Other tools are the ball tool which is 
adapted to finishing curves; the hook tool, used on inside work; and 
the beading tool which is needed in rolling over a bead at the edge of 
a shell when extra strength or a better finish is desired. 

When much beading of one kind is being done, a large heavy pair 
of round-nose pliers (Fig. 10) with the jaws bent around in a curve 
and sprung apart enough to allow for the thickness of the metal 
proves to be a handy tool. After the edge of the shell has been flared 
out to start the bead, the pliers are opened enough to admit the metal 
and then closed and the stock guided around to form the bead as far 



10 



No. 57— METAL SPINNING 



as possible. In this way the larger part of a bead is rapidly formed, 
one jaw of the pliers acting as a spinning tool and the other corre- 
sponding to the back-stick. During this operation, the pliers are, of 
course, supported by being held against the T-rest. 

Closely allied with these spinning tools are two other tools (also 
shown in Fig. 11) known as the diamond point and the skimmer. The 
diamond point is for trimming the edges of the shell during the spin- 
ning operation and for cutting out centers or other parts of the work. 
The skimmer is for cleaning up the surface of a shell, removhig a 
small amount of metal in doing so, the amount depending upon the 
skill the spinner used in the spinning proper. 



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COMBINATION FLAT OR 

POINT AND BALL SMOOTHING FISH-TAIL BALL TOOLS 




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nuuP " U1AMUNU BEADING SKIMMERS 

POINT 

Fig. 11. Hand Tools of Various Forms used in Spinning 

When the bottoms are to be cut from a large number of shells and 
it is necessary that they be cut exactly alike, a tool known as a swivel 
cutter is used. This tool (see Fig. 9) is simply an iron bar with a 
cutter on one end, which swivels near the center around a' pin in the 
T-rest; thus by a slight movement of the arm the cutter is brought 
up to the work, cutting a piece from the shell of exactly the same size 
each time. 

The Spinning Operation 

In order to make clear the successive steps in spinning, let us 
briefly consider the making of a copper head-lighc reflector, and the 
way the work is handled when a few hundred pieces are to be made. 

By trial spinning, the size of the blank required for one of the 
reflectors is determined, and with the square shears the copper sheets 



PRINCIPLES OF METAL SPINNING 11 

are cut into pieces an eighth of an inch larger each way. These squares 
are then taken to the circular shears and cut to round shapes ready 
for the spinning lathe. The spinning form, of kiln-dried maple, is 
screwed to the spindle and the belt thrown to that step of the cone 
pulley which will bring the speed nearest to 1,200 revolutions. From 
the stock-room a follower is selected whose face will nearly cover the 
bottom of the form. It is now "up to" the spinner. Holding a blank 
and also the follower against the end of the form, he runs the tail- 
center up to the center in the follower just hard enough to hold the 
blank in place. Then, starting the lathe, he centers the blank by 
lightly pressing against its edge a hard wood stick. As soon as it "lines 
up" he runs the center up a little harder and clamps it in place. Some 
spinners will "hop in" a blank with the lathe running, but this is 
dangerous practice and sometimes the blank will go sailing across the 
room. Cften this happens in truing up the blank and for this reason 
it is considered advisable to have a wire grating at the further side 
of the lathe to prevent serious accidents; for a sheet metal blank is a 
dangerous missile traveling at the high rate of speed which is imparted 
to it by the lathe. 

With a piece of beeswax (soap is sometimes used for economical 
reasons) the spinner lightly rubs the rapidly revolving blank and then 
adjusts the pin in the T-rest to a point near enough to the blank to 
obtain a good leverage with the spinning tool. Holding the handle 
of his point and ball tool under his right armpit and using the tool 
as a lever and the pin on the rest as a fulcrum, he slowly forces the 
metal disk back in the direction of the body of the form, never allow- 
ing the tool to rest in one spot, but constantly working it in and out, 
applying the pressure on the way out to the edge o.f the disk and 
letting up as he comes back for a new stroke. In the meantime his 
left hand is busy holding a short piece of hard wood (called the back- 
stick), firmly against the reverse side of the metal at a constantly 
changing point opposite the tool. The object of the back-stick is to 
keep the stock from wrinkling as it is stretched toward the edge of 
the disk. Wrinkles cause the metal to crack at the edges and for this 
reason they must be kept from the stock as much as possible. 

After a few strokes of the spinning tool have been taken, the shell ' 
will appear about as shown at B, Fig. 12, and at this point it is neces- 
sary to trim the shell at the edges with the diamond-point tool. Trim- 
ming is required because spinning stretches the stock and the result- 
ing uneven edge will cause splits in the metal if it is not trimmed 
occasionally. As a carpenter is known by his chips, so a spinner is 
known by the way his work stretches. While the even pressure of 
a good spinner will stretch the stock very little, the uneven pressure 
of the inexperienced man will lead him into all sorts of trouble on 
account of the way the stock will "go." In either case the metal always 
stretches least in the direction in which the sheet stock was originally 
rolled, consequently giving the edge a slight oval shape. In trimming 
zinc, the spinner holds a "swab" of cloth just above the diamond point, 



12 



No. 57— METAL SPINNING 



to prevent the chips from flying into his face and eyes — or those of 
his neighbors. With other metals the swab is unnecessary. 

The reflector is now taking shape. With each successive stroke the 
spinner sets a little more of the metal against the form. Not only does 
spinning stretch the metal, but it hardens it as well; therefore, at the 
stage C it becomes necessary to anneal the partially completed reflector, 
which is done by heating it to a low red in a gas furnace. In running 
through a lot of shells, the common practice is to spin them all as far 
as possible without annealing, and after annealing the whole lot, to 
complete the spinning. 

After replacing the shell upon the form, it is trimmed and worked 
further along the form, gradually assuming the appearance shown at 








4TH STEP IX" 5TH STEP 

D 

Fig. 12. Successive Steps in Spinning a Reflector 

D. At this time, the spinner goes back to the small radius at the front 
end of the shell and with a ball tool he closes the annealed metal hard 
down against the form, for the spinning has tended to pull the stock 
slightly from the form at this point. The body of the reflector is now 
practically completed and the spinner directs his attention to rolling 
the bead at the outside edge. Slowly he begins to roll the edge of the 
shell back, using his hook tool to complete the bead as far as possible 
and exercising care to keep the back-stick firmly against the metal 
so as to keep the wrinkles out. Now, with the diamond point, he 
gives the edges a final trim, and with the beading tool closes down 
the bead snugly against the rest of the shell, as shown at E. Lastly, 
the swivel cutter is placed in the proper hole of the T-rest and a turn 
of the tool cuts out the center to the exact size, and the reflector is 
completed. If any burrs or rough places remain they are easily re- 
moved at this time with the skimmer or diamond point, and a little 
emery cloth gives the shell a finished appearance. 



PRINCIPLES OF METAL SPINNING 13 

Referring to the illustration Fig. 7, A, B and C represent the three 
most important stages of spinning a shell like that shown at C. An- 
nealing is necessary between steps A and B. D is a shell spun upon 
a form of the plug variety, and E and F are two views of a shell spun 
after the method shown in Fig. 4, F being the completed shell. G 
illustrates a very difficult shell to spin, on account of the small follower 
that must be used; the length of the small diameter also adds to the 
difficulty. H shows a shell that must be spun upon a sectional chuck, 
while 7 is a plain easy job of ornamental spinning. The ball shown 
at J was spun from one piece of aluminum and it is more of a curiosity 
than a specimen of practical spinning. It was first spun over a form 
that would leave one-half of the ball complete and the stock for the 
other half straight out like a short tube. Next a wooden split chuck 
was made, hollowed out to receive the finished end of the ball and the 
open end was gradually spun down and in until the ball was complete 
with but a 1/16-inch hole at the end. This hole was plugged and the 
hollow ball was done. 



Pig. 13. An Interesting- Example of Metal Spinning 

As another example of metal spinning, assume the shape shown in 
Fig. 13. The shell is to be 20 inches in diameter, 6 inches deep, and 
0.060 inch thick. The metal to be used is zinc. This is an interesting 
metal spinning job, and not a particularly difficult one. The shell can 
be best spun with the aid of two spinning forms, such as are illustrated 
in Figs. 14 and 15. These forms should be made of kiln-dried maple if 
there are comparatively few shells to be spun. If there are many, 
the forms should be made of cast iron. Fig. 14 shows the first form to 
be used, which conforms to the outside of the shell as far as the centers 
of the spherical ring. Beyond these points, the form is straight. The 
blank to be spun is placed as indicated by the dotted lines, and follower 
No. 1 is used to hold the work against the form. The chief trouble 
will be met in properly starting the shell, because of the small follower 
that must be employed. However, follower No. 2 may be substituted 
after working the metal back against the form a few inches, and as 
this gives a better grip on the shell, there will be no further danger 
of slipping. After spinning the zinc shell to the shape of the first 
form (Fig. 14) it will probably have to be annealed, but this can only be 
determined by trial. In annealing zinc, the flame should not be allowed 
to touch the metal. The half completed shell is then put on form No. 
2 shown in Fig. 15. It is an easy matter to spin the metal round to 
complete the arc. The dotted line shows the position of the shell before 
starting the last part of the spinning. Of course, it will be understood 



14 



No. 57— METAL SPINNING 



that the shell must be trimmed several times during the spinning, and 
if the trimming is frequently done, a well-shaped shell should result. 
For spinning on form No. 2, follower No. 3 must be used. Either 
beeswax or soap should be frequently rubbed over the work while 
spinning. If it is necessary to cut out the center, it can be done before 
removing the shell from the last form by simply removing the follower 
and using a diamond point tool, or in large product work the swivel 
cutter will work well. The shell will cling to the form without the 
follower. The spinning speed should be from 800 to 1,000 R. P. M. 




Fig. 14 



Fig. 15 



While the operation of spinning is a comparatively simple one to 
describe, it is not easily learned, and to-day good all-around spinners 
are hard to find. The limits of accuracy are not as closely defined as 
in straight machine work, but there are times when good fits are 
absolutely necessary, as in cases where two shells must slip snugly 
together. In this chapter we have taken up only the plain every-day 
kind of spinning, and were we to follow its work in the gold and 
silversmith's trade, we would see it evolve into a fine art. In order 
to insure really good work coming from the spinning lathe, there is 
a wide range of knowledge that the spinner must have. That knowl- 
edge may be brought together and summed up by a single word — 
judgment. 



CHAPTER II 

TOOLS AND METHODS USED IN 
METAL SPINNING* 

The principal object of this chapter is to describe in detail the vari- 
ous operations of spinning metal so that a tool-maker or machinist 
who has not access to a metal spinner, will be able to make his own 
tools, rig up an engine or speed lathe, and make the simple forms 
or models that are required in experimental work. To do this intelli- 
gently, it is necessary to follow in detail every step in metal spinning 
from the circular blank to annealing, pickling, dipping, burnishing, 
etc., and also to know how to make the simpler forms of spinning 
tools, what lubricants to use on the different kinds of metals, what 
material to make the spinning chuck of, and how far the metal can be 
worked before annealing. 

Spinning metal into complicated and elaborate shapes, is an art 
fully as difficult as any craft, and the man is truly an artist that can 
make artistic and graceful outlines in metal, especially when only a 
few pieces are required and the cost will not allow of making special 
chucks to do the work on and with no outline chucks to govern his 
design, the forms being made by skill and manipulation of tools alone. 
Such skill is far superior to that of the Russian metal worker, who, 
•instead of making a vase or ornament of one piece, cuts up several 
sections and soft solders them together, after covering them with 
crude "gingerbread" work to disguise his poor metal work. 

The amateur can imitate the Russian work, but never the work of 
the skilled spinner. There are several grades of spinners, most of 
them never attaining the skill of the model-maker or the facility for 
handling the different metals. A man that has had several years of 
experience spinning brass or copper would not be able to spin britan- 
nia or white metal without stretching it to a very uneven thickness. 
As brass or copper is harder than the other metals mentioned, they re- 
sist the tool more and require more pressure in forming, and if the 
operator used the same pressure on the softer metals, he would stretch 
or distort them, so that they would be perhaps one-quarter of the 
original thickness at angles and corners where the strain in spinning 
would be greatest, which would ruin the articles. The best test for 
skill in ordinary spinning, is to take a long difficult shape, after being 
finished, and saw it in two lengthwise, and if the variation in thick- 
ness is less than 25 per cent of the original gage, it is good practice. 
Some spinners can keep within 10 per cent of the gage on ordinary 
work, but they are scarce. 

The spinning trade in this country is mostly followed by foreigners. 
Germans and Swedes being the best. The American that has intelli- 
* Machinery, March and April, 1910. 



16 No. 57— WET A L SPINNING 

gence and skill enough to be a first-class spinner, will generally look 
around for something easier about the time that he has the trade 
acquired. It is an occupation that cannot be followed up in old age, 
as it is too strenuous, the operator being on his feet constantly, and 
having to use his head as well as his muscles. 

General Remarks on Metal Spinning Chucks 

For common plain shapes, a patternmaker's faceplate, with a tap- 
ered center screw, is sufficient for holding the wood chuck. The hole 
in the wood should be the same taper as the screw, thus giving an 
even grip on the thread. If a straight hole only is used, and it is not 
reamed out before screwing to the plate, it will only have a bearing 
on one or two threads, and if the chuck is taken off and replaced on the 
faceplate, it will not run true. Care should also be taken to face off 
the end of the chuek flat, or to slightly recess it, so that it will screw 
up evenly against the faceplate, as a high center will cause it to rock 
and run out of true. 

In large chucks (over five inches) it is best to have three or four 
wood screws, besides the center screw. The holes for these can be 
spaced off accurately on a circle in the iron faceplate, and drilled and 
countersunk. It is best to have twice as many holes as screws; that 
is, if four screws are used there should be eight holes, so that if the 
chuck has to be replaced at any time and the wood has shrunk, it 
can be turned one-eighth of a revolution further than the original 
chucking. 

Where a chuck has to be used several times, it is better practice 
to cut a thread in the wood and screw the chuck directly to the 
spindle of a lathe, not using the faceplate. This thread can be chased 
with a regular chasing tool, where the operator has the skill, or 
if not, the wood can be bored out and a special wood tap used. Such 
a tap has no flutes and it is bored hollow, there being a wall about < 
3/16 inch thick. One tooth does all the cutting, that is the one at the 
end of the thread. The chips go into the hollow part of the tap. The 
end of the tap for about }4 inch should have the same diameter as the 
hole before threading to act as guide for the cutting tooth. 

It is essential that a chuck should run very true and be balanced 
perfectly, as the high speed at which it runs will cause it to vibrate 
and run out of true, causing the finished metal to show chatter marks. 
The best wood for chucks is hard maple, and it should be selected 
for its even grain and absence of checks and cracks. It is best to 
paint the ends with paraffine or red lead, or to immerse the chucks 
in some vegetable oil after turning. Cottonseed oil is very good for 
this purpose, but care should be taken not to soak the chucks too 
long. 

For a man not skilled in spinning, it is better to use metal chucks 
than wood, for if there are many shells of a kind, the operator is 
liable to bear too hard on the tool, thus compressing the chuck and 
making the last shells smaller than the first. Corners and angles not 
well supported might also be knocked off. The writer prefers cold 



TOOLS AND METHODS 17 

rolled steel for chucks up to 6 inches in diameter and cast iron for the 
larger ones, but where good steel castings can be obtained, a good 
chuck can be made by turning roughly to shape a wood pattern, allow- 
ing enough for shrinkage and finishing, and hollowing out the back to 
lighten it. When the chuck is finished all over in the lathe, it should 
balance much better than a cast iron one, as there are not the chances 
of having blow holes in the iron, thus throwing the chuck out of bal- 
ance. 

Annealing 

The distance that metal can be drawn without annealing, can only 
be learned by experience. A flat blank rotated in the lathe, being soft, 
will offer little resistance and it can be gradually drawn down by a 
tool held under the chuck and against the blank. This tool is pushed 
from the center outward and forward at the same time, and every 
time it passes over the blank or disk the metal becomes harder by 
friction, and the change of formation and the resistance at the point 
of the tool greater. This can be felt as the tool is under the oper- 
ator's arm. When the spring of the metal is such that the tool does 
not gain any, but only hardens the metal, the shell should be taken 
off and annealed. If the metal has been under a severe strain, it 
should be hammered on the horn of an anvil or any metal piece that 
will support the inside. The hammer should be a wood or rawhide 
mallet, but never metal, the object being to put dents or flutes in the 
metal to relieve the strain when heating for annealing; if this is not 
done the shell will crack. 

After annealing the shell it should be pickled to clean the oxide or 
scale from the surface; otherwise the metal will be pitted. When 
the scale is crowded into the metal and when it will not finish smooth 
after spinning to shape, the metal can be finished by skimming or 
shaving the outer surface which cuts out all tool marks; it can then 
be finished with medium emery cloth or the shell can be bright dipped, 
and be run over with a burnishing tool before buffing. Burnishing 
can be done on the spinning chuck, but the speed should be higher 
than for spinning; this requires some skill for a good job, and it can 
be done only on metal chucks. 

Annealing is best accomplished in a wood or gas oven, where a 
forge fire is used. The metal should never touch the coke or other 
fuel, but it should be held in the flame above the fire. Where only 
part annealing is required, the shell can be immersed in water, the 
part to be annealed being exposed above the water, and a blowpipe 
used on it. The remainder of the shell will then be hard. This way 
of annealing is sometimes necessary on a special shapes. 

Brass should be heated to a cherry red, and held at that point for 
a few minutes, in a muffle furnace. If an open furnace is used, just 
bring the metal to a cherry red and then dip it in water; this method 
is better than when waiting for it to cool, the action being just the op- 
posite to that on steel. Brass such as the common yellow brass is not 
suitable for spinning, there being but 55 per cent copper and 45 per 
cent zinc. There are two grades of brass suitable for spinning. These 



18 



jVo. 57— METAL SPINNING 



are known as "spinning and drawing," having 60 per cent copper and 
40 per cent zinc, and "extra spinning and drawing" having 67 per 
cent copper and 33 per cent zinc. There is also a better grade known 
as "low brass" having from 75 to 80 per cent copper; it has the color 
of bronze and is only used on very deep and difficult spinning. 

The scale, after annealing, should be pickled off in an acid bath 
(described further on in this chapter), and the part thoroughly washed 
in running water. Brass, German silver and the harder metals should 
be hammered before annealing; it is not necessary to hammer zinc, 
copper, aluminum, etc. 

A pyrometer in an annealing furnace would be an advantage where 
quantities of the softer metals such as zinc, aluminum, etc., are being 
heated. Copper is annealed the same as brass and is also pickled. 
Zinc is coated with oil before being put in the oven, and when the oil 




Fig. 16. Zinc Lamp Shade Spun in One Operation without Annealing- 

turns brown, which occurs when the temperature is about 350 degrees, 
the metal is ready to take out; it should then be plunged in water to 
shed the scale, but not pickled. The melting point of zinc is 780 de- 
grees F. Aluminum can be annealed the same as zinc, as the melting 
point is 1,140 degrees F. 

Steel should be annealed by heating to a cherry red and then allow- 
ing it to cool slowly; it should be scaled in a special pickle, thoroughly 
washed, and then put back in the fire long enough to evaporate every 
particle of acid that may have remained from the pickling operation. 
Any acid remaining on the steel will neutralize any lubricant that is 
applied when spinning. Annealing should be avoided wherever possi- 
ble. Open hearth steel only should be used. It should be free from 
scale and preferably cold rolled. Bessemer steel is not suitable, ex- 
cept for very shallow spinnings. Tin plate made from open hearth 
steel can be spun about one-half as deep as its diameter where the 
shape is not too irregular. German silver is difficult to spin, espe- 
cially when it contains over 15 per cent nickel; it has to be hammered 
before annealing, the same as brass, to avoid cracks. 



TOOLS AND METHODS 



Lubricants 



19 



Common yellow soap cut up in strips about % inch or % inch square 
is a good lubricant for spinning most metals. It should be applied 
evenly to the disk or blank while it is revolving, by holding the soap 
in the hand and drawing it across the surface. Beeswax is the best 
fcr spinning steel, but it is expensive. Lard oil mixed with white 
lead is a fair substitute. Either mutton or beef tallow applied with a 
cloth swab is very good on most all metals; also vaseline and graphite 
mixed to a paste and applied the same as tallow. 

Examples of Spinning- Various Metals 

The different metals are malleable, ductile and tenacious in the 
following order; white metal or britannia, aluminum, zinc, copper, 
low brass, high brass, German silver, steel, tin plate. White metal 
does not harden in spinning, but it requires special skill in handling, 




Figr. 17. Gas Burner for Heating Spinning Chuck 

or the metal will be of very uneven gage. The best metal for an 
amateur to start on is copper, as it is both tenacious and ductile, and 
will stand much abuse in the fire and on the lathe. One of the pecu- 
liar properties of zinc is that it has a grain or texture, and when 
spinning, the two sides that go through the rolls lengthwise will 
be longer than the sides that have the cross grain, requiring the shell 
to be trimmed off quite a distance to even the edge. 

To show the possibilities of working the different metals, and their 
relative spinning values, a number of articles made from different 
materials are illustrated herewith. 

A zinc lamp shade is shown in Fig. 16 that is 141/4 inches in diam- 
eter and i% inches deep. This shade was spun in one operation, with- 
out annealing, from a flat circular blank. All zinc should be warmed 
before spinning, either over a gas burner at the lathe or in hot soap 
water, and the chuck also should be heated, as otherwise the blank 
will soon chill, if spun on a cold metal chuck, as the chuck absorbs 
the heat long before the operation is finished. Of course this does 



20 



No. 57— METAL SPINNING 



not apply to wooden chucks. The chuck may be heated by using the 
burner shown in Fig. 17, which is located around the spindle of the 
lathe. The size of the burner should, of course, be in proportion to 
that of the chuck used. The burner illustrated is 8 inches in diam- 
eter. It has several small holes drilled for the gas on the side facing 
the chuck. The heat of the chuck is regulated by varying the supply 
of gas to the burner. The blank is heated before it is put on the 




Figs. 18 and 19. Examples of Aluminum and Copper Spinning 1 



chuck and the friction of the spinning tool helps to keep it warm until 
it comes in contact with the chuck. The metal retains its heat until 
the job is finished, and this sometimes saves an annealing operation. 
In Pig 18 is shown an example of aluminum spinning. The article 
illustrated is a cuspidor having a top 7% inches in diameter, a neck 
with a 4-inch flare, a diameter at the top of 9% inches, and a height 




Fig. 20. German Silver 
Reflector 



Fig. 21. Open Hearth Cold-rolled 

Steel Shell 



of 6*4 inches. This shell was spun without annealing, which shows 
the extreme ductility of aluminum. The copper shell shown in Fig. 
19, has a maximum diameter of 7 inches, and a depth of 8 inches; 
it was spun with four annealings. A German silver reflector, which 
is 10 inches in diameter at the largest end and 5 inches deep, is shown 
in Fig. 20. The spinning of such a reflector, when made from this 
material, is quite difficult. An open hearth cold-rolled steel shell with 



TOOLS AND METHODS 21 

a maximum diameter of 3 inches and a depth of 4 inches is shown in 
Fig. 21. This shell was spun without annealing, which shows that the 
grade of steel used is well adapted for this work. 

In Fig. 22 two finished brass shells are shown to the right, and also 
the number of operations required to change the form of the metal. 
The upper shell is 6 inches long and 3% inches in diameter at the 




Fig. 22. Various Steps in Spinning the Two Brass Shells at the Right 



large end, while the lower one is 7^4 inches long by 3% inches in 
diameter. It was necessary to anneal these shells between each 
operation, the upper shell being annealed four times and the lower 
one three times. These pieces were made in quantities sufficient to war- 
rant the making of chucks for each operation, which enabled them to 
be spun with less skill than would be required if a finishing chuck 




Fig. 23. Another Brass Spinning Operation ; the Chuck used is shown at A 



only were made. When a single finishing chuck is used, the various 
operations in spinning a shell of this kind would be left to the judg- 
ment of the spinner, who would decide the limit of the stretch of 
metal between the operations before annealing. 

A brass shell that is made in five operations and with four anneal- 
ings is shown in Fig. 23. The finishing chuck used is a split or key 
chuck on which it is necessary to cut out the end of the shell in order 



22 



No. 57— METAL SPINNING 



to withdraw the key after the shell is spun. This shell, which is 
shown finished to the right, is 5^ inches long. It is spun smooth on 
a machine steel chuck, and is not skimmed, but gone over with a 
planishing tool at the last operation. The two pieces shown in Fig. 
22 were also finished in this way. 




Fig. 24. An Example of " Air Spinning " and the Chucks used 

Fig. 24 shows a brass shell, which is a good example of "air spin- 
ning," so called because the finishing or second operation on part of 
the shape is done in the air, thus avoiding the use of a sectional or 
split chuck. The shell shown is about 5^ inches in diameter. The 
first or breaking-down chuck is shown at A. The neck or small part 




Fig. 25. Miscellaneous Collection of Spinning Chucks 

of the piece, and also a portion of the spherical surface, is formed by 
the spinning tool without any support from the chuck. After the shell 
is spun or broken down on chuck A, it is annealed and pickled. It is 
then put back on chuck A and planished or hardened on the part that 
is to retain its present shape. The work is then placed on the chuck 
B and the soft part is manipulated by the tool until it conforms to 



TOOLS AND METHOLS 



23 



the shape shown to the right. While this soft part of the metal is 
being formed, the part which was previously hardened retains its 
shape. 

Various Types of Metal-spinning Chucks and 
their Construction 

A miscellaneous collection of spinning chucks is shown in Fig. 25. 
As will be seen, the larger ones are machined out in the back to 
lighten them, and also to^give them an even balance. The larger of 
those illustrated measure about 9% inches in diameter, and they are 
made of cast iron, while the smaller chucks shown in this view are 
of machine steel. The chuck marked A is a key chuck. Another 
collection of spinning chucks of various shapes is shown in Fig. 26. 




Fig. 26. Another Group of Spinning Chucks. Those in the Upper Row 
are of the Split or Key Type 

Those in the upper row are all key or split chucks, and the keys 
are shown withdrawn from the sockets. All these chucks, up to 6 
inches in diameter, are made of machine steel; those seen in the 
lower row are shapes which are comparatively easy to spin. 

A collection of hard maple chucks is shown in Fig. 27, some of 
which represent shapes that are difficult to spin. The chuck A is 15 
inches long, and the maximum diameter of B is 12^ inches. These 
figures will serve to give an idea of the proportions of the other 
chucks. All of the chucks shown have threads cut in them and they 
are screwed directly to the spindle of the lathe, the faceplate being 
dispensed with. Some of the larger wooden chucks used measure 
approximately 5 feet in diameter. A chuck of this size is built up of 
sections which are glued together. 

A number of bronze sectional split chucks are shown in Fig. 28. 
When spinning over a sectional chuck, it is first necessary to break 



24 



No. 57— METAL SPINNING 



down the shell as far as is practicable on a solid chuck. Care should 
be taken, however, to leave sufficient clearance so that the work may 
be withdrawn. The shell is then annealed, after which it is put on 
the sectional chuck and the under cut or small end is spun down to 
the chuck surface. When the entire surface of the shell is spun down 
to a bearing, the shell is planished or skimmed to a smooth surface; 




Fig. 27. Various Forms of Spinning Chucks made from Hard Maple 




Fig. 28. A Group of Bronze Sectional Chucks 

the open edge is also trimmed even and the shell is polished with 
emery cloth. 

A large bronze chuck of seven sections, one of which is a key sec- 
tion, is shown at A. The largest diameter of this chuck is 10 inches. 
It has a cast iron center hub and a steel cap at the top for holding 
the sections in place. This cap, when in place in the retaining groove 



TOOLS AND METHODS 



25 



shown, is flush with the top of the chuck. Another large chuck hav- 
ing five sections and one key section is shown at B. The retaining 
cap in this case is of a different form. The lower parts of the sections 
of all these chucks fit in a groove at the bottom of the hub. A chuck 
of five sections that is without a binding cap, is shown at C. This 
is not a good design as the hub or center is too straight, and all of 
the grip or drive is from the bottom groove, which is not sufficient. 
The shape shown at D is more difficult to spin than any of the others, 
as it is smaller at the opening in proportion to its size. This chuck 
also requires more sections in order that it may be withdrawn from 
the shell after the latter is spun. The chuck E is intended for a small 
shell that is also difficult to spin. The drive pins which prevent the 
segments of the chuck E from turning may be seen projecting from 
its base. The centering pins at the outer end of chucks D and E and 




Pig. 29. Sectional Chucks made from Wood 



the binding caps may also be seen. The chuck A, because of its size, 
is hollowed out to reduce the weight. All of these chucks were made 
for hard service, and they have been used in spinning thousands of 
shells. 

Another group of sectional chucks is shown in Fig. 29. They are 
mostly made from hard maple. The sections of chuck A are planed 
and fitted together and thin pieces of paper are glued to these sec- 
tions before they are glued collectively for turning. By using the 
paper between the joints, the sections may be easily separated after 
they are turned to the proper size and form. If the different sections 
were glued without paper between them, the joint formed would be 
so good that the separation of the sections could not be controlled, 
and parts from opposite sections would be torn away. The use of the 
paper, however, between the glued joints, controls the separation of 
the sections. The chuck shown at D is also made with the paper be- 
tween the sections. Chucks B and E are turned from the solid, care 
being taken to have the grain of the wood lengthwise. After they are 
turned to the required form, they are split into sections with a sharp 



26 



No. 57— METAL SPINNING 



chisel. Before doing this, the key-section should first be laid out. 
There should be as few sections as possible, the number being just 
sufficient to enable the withdrawing of the chuck from the shell after 
the latter is spun to shape. This method of making a chuck, while 
quicker than the other, is not good practice, except for small work. 

A lignum vita? chuck is shown at A in Fig. 30; this was made with 
paper between the sections. The key-section is shown on top. This 
wood, while being more durable than hard maple, costs sixteen cents 
a pound in the rough and, counting the waste material, is not any 
cheaper than bronze, and is less durable. The hard maple chucks B 
and C were turned from the solid, after which the sections were split. 
The segments shown in the center of the illustration did not split 
evenly, owing to a winding or twisting grain. 




Figr. 30. Other Examples of Wooden Sectional Chucks 

The construction of a sectional spinning chuck is shown in Fig. 31. 
This illustration also shows the proper proportion for the central hub 
and its taper. This hub should never be straight, but should have 
from 5 to 7% degrees taper on the central part. There should also 
be a taper of 1% degree on the other binding surfaces as indicated. 
These parts are made tapering so that the shell can be released from 
the lathe after spinning, without hammering or driving; when straight 
surfaces are used the work has to be pried off, and it is also harder 
to set up the sections for the next shell. Another disadvantage is that 
with straight fittings the wear cannot be taken up. An end cap or 
binder should be used wherever possible as it steadies the chuck. A 
drive pin should also be used and the hole for it drilled in the largest 
section; this is important, as it gives the sections a more positive 
drive. If they slip they will soon wear themselves loose and leave 
openings at the joints. 

The plan view shows the method of laying out the various sections. 
The key should be laid out first. One key is enough for the particular 



TOOLS AND METHODS 



27 



form, of chuck illustrated, but it is often necessary to use two key 
sections when the shell opening is small. 

When a sectional chuck is to be made, it is important to decide first 
on the size of the central hub A, the number of sections C, and also the 
design of the cap or binder B. This cap must not exceed in size the 
opening in the finished shell, as it would be impossible to remove it 

after the chuck sections 
were taken out. After 
the size of the hub A has 
been decided upon, a 
wooden form should be 
turned that is a duplicate 
of A, except that a spheri- 
cal surface E should be 
added. This spherical part 
should be slightly smaller 
than the inner diameter 
of the bronze sections in 
order to allow for machin- 
ing them. In turning this 
wooden pattern on which 
the plaster patterns for the 
sections are to be formed, 
the shoulder D should be 
omitted, as a removable 
metal ring will take its 
place. 

When the wooden hub is 
ready, two metal parti- 
tions or templets of the 
same outline as the chuck, 
though about one-half inch 
larger than its total diam- 
eter, for shrinkage and 
finishing, are fastened to 
the hub in the correct posi- 
tion for making a plaster 
pattern for the key section. 
These patterns should 
have extension ends so 
that the sections when cast 
may be held by them while 
they are being turned. 
The templets should be banked around with a wad of clay, and they 
should also be coated on the inside with sperm oil to keep the plas- 
ter from sticking. There should be two brads driven in the hub for 
each section of plaster to hold the sections in place while they are 
being turned. After the plaster for the key section has hardened, the 
templets should be located one on each side of the key section, so 




Machinery, N. T. 



Fig. 31. Elevation and Plan showing Construction 
of Sectional Chuck 



28 



No. 57— METAL SPINNING 



that the two adjacent sections may be made. In this way all the 
sections are finished. After about forty-eight hours the plaster will 
be hard enough to turn in the lathe with a hand tool. The form 
should be roughly outlined and plenty of stock left for shrinkage, as 
bronze shrinks considerably. Before taking the sections off the wooden 
frame, the metal band D should be removed to allow the sections to 
be separated. This should not be done, however, until they are num- 
bered, so that they can be again placed in their proper positions. 
After the sections are cast, they should be surfaced on a disk grinder, 
or finished with a file, care being taken to remove as little metal as 
possible. Each section is next tinned on both contact faces, and then 




Fig. 32. A Modern Spinning Lathe 

all are assembled and sweated or soldered together by a blow-pipe. 
It is sometimes necessary to put a couple of strong metal bands around 
the sections to hold them firmly in place when soldering and also 
to support them during the turning operation. 

The central hub A should be machined first; then the assembled 
outside shell should be machined to fit the hub A, both on the taper 
part and at the point D. While the segments are being bored and 
faced, they are held by the extension ends (not shown) which were 
provided for this purpose. This outer shell should also be machined 
all over the inside so that it will be in balance. It is then taken out of 
the chuck and a hole is drilled in the largest section for drive pin H. 
The hub A is then caught in the lathe chuck with the assembled sec- 
tions on it, and a seat is turned for the cap B. After this is done 
the binder bands can be removed, but not before. The chuck can be 
finished with a hand tool and file after the roughing cut is taken. 
After the sections are removed from the hub and numbered at the 



TOOLS AND METHODS 



29 



bottom or inner ends, they can be separated by heating them. If the 
joints are properly fitted there will be only a thin film of solder, 
which can be wiped off when hot. 

A twenty-four-inch metal spinning lathe that is rigged up in a mod- 
ern way, is shown in Fig. 32. The hand wheel of the tailstock has 
been discarded for the lever A, which is more rapid and can be ma- 
nipulated without stopping the lathe. This lathe has a roller bearing 
for the center B which is a practical improvement over types pre- 
viously used. The pin C, which is used in the rest as a fulcrum for 
the spinning tools, is also an improvement, being larger than those 
ordinarily used. It is % inch in diameter, 6 inches long, and it has 







r 






■H 


Ah 




* l 


v 
> 

? 



Fig. 33. View shoeing how the Tool is held when Spinning 

a reduced end for the holes in the rest, % inch in diameter by 1 inch 
long. This pin is large enough so that the spinner can conveniently 
hold it with his left hand when necessary, and it can also be rapidly 
changed to different holes. The pins ordinarily used, because of their 
small size, do not have these advantages. The speed of a spinning 
lathe having a five-step cone should be about 2,250 to 2,300 revolu- 
tions per minute with the belt on the smallest step, and from 600 to 
700 revolutions per minute with the belt on the largest step. The 
fastest speed given is suitable for all work under 5 inches in diam- 
eter, and the slowest for work within the capacity of the lathe. On 
large shells it is sometimes necessary to change from one speed to 
another as the work progresses. Figs. 33 and 34 show the spinner at 
work, and illustrate how the tool should be held, and also the proper 
position of the left hand. 



30 



No. 57— METAL SPINNING 



Construction of the Tailstock and Back-center 

Fig. 35 shows a spinning-lathe tailstock, which has been changed 
from the hand-wheel-and-screw type to one having a lever and a roller 
bearing. The spindle A which is withdrawn from the lever and 
turned one-quarter of a revolution to give a better view of the rollers, 
is made from 1%-inch cold rolled steel. The rollers against which 
the center bears do not project beyond the spindle, so that the latter 
can be withdrawn through the tailstock. This eliminates the excessive 
overhang caused by ball bearings and other centers. When the cen- 
ter projects too far, the tailstock cannot be set close to the wcrk 
owing to the necessity of withdrawing the center when removing the 



HH 


i 


i 




■\^k ►- t 




UaH* 


|UA 


H 


i 

I 




1 m-1 1 






sl»\ 


^^^T - 






HI m : 












^n 








Eft 




K_.IL 










*& - -.:,-,; 


- "^^^HS 




uB 










IB 


BCSS 




^^&v^«r I 




-»- 1 






fl^S« 







Fig. 34. Another View shewing the Position of the Spinner and the 
Way the Tool is held -when forming the Metal 

spun part. The application of this principle to a spinning lathe is 
original and the type of center illustrated was used only after all 
other kinds had failed, including all the types of ball bearings and 
revolving pins. The best forms of ball bearing centers do not last 
over a year, if in constant use, and they will not always revolve on 
small work. Two other spindles are shown in this engraving, which 
were taken from other lathes in order to show different views of the 
parts. The cylindrical pieces B are the hardened friction rollers 
which belong in the slot of the spindle F, and C is the hardened pin 
upon which they revolve. The hardened center D has a threaded end 
on which the back-centers E of different lengths and shapes are 
screwed. The friction rollers should always be in a vertical position, 
and care should be taken to have them exactly central with the spindle. 



TOOLS AND METHODS 31 

and also gives the principal dimensions of a roller bearing for a 1%- 
inch spindle. A is a hardened steel bushing, which is driven into 
the machine steel spindle. The parts B are the hardened steel rollers 
which travel in opposite directions. These rollers have a small amount 
of friction, and this is distributed over a large area. A spindle revolv- 




Fig. 35. Detailed View of a Spinning-lathe Taiistock 

ing at 2,300 revolutions per minute will not cause these rollers to 
rotate very rapidly, while a ball bearing with balls traveling in a 
channel iy 2 inch or 2 inches in diameter would be traveling at the 
same speed as the driving spindle. They also wear out rapidly as the 
end strain is very great, it being necessary to force the center against 



! _i_ 
_i 





K 1 

( 


, 

o 




— *B 


* \ 


«•— 1 


B 


r ; 




i**# 


i 
l 
* 1 



+-?&WV 











f 


1. 




i :: c 




\ 


B 


JB 


J 




section a-a 



Fig. 36. Sectional View showing the Back-center and its 
Double Roller Bearing 

the metal with considerable pressure to keep it from slipping. C is the 
hardened pin upon which the rollers revolve, and D is the hardened 
spindle on which the various back-centers are screwed. The collar E 
should either be flattened for a wrench, or a 5/16-inch hole, in which a 
wire can be inserted, should be drilled through the spindle, so that 



32 



No. 57— METAL SPINNING 



it can be kept from rotating when screwing on the back-centers. Some 
spinners prefer the spindle loose, so that it can be withdrawn when 
changing the centers, while others prefer one with considerable lateral 
motion, but not enough to permit of withdrawal. By inserting a 
screw-point in the recess F, the center has considerable lateral mo- 
tion, but not enough to allow it to be withdrawn. This recess is use- 
ful in that it helps to distribute the oil. All parts should be hard- 
ened and drawn to a light straw color; they should also be ground or 
lapped to a true fit after hardening. Back-centers of this construction 




Fig. 37. Attachment used for Rolling Sharp Turns and Beads 

have been in use for over three years in one establishment, and it 
has not been necessary to replace a single part. 

Tools Used in Metal Spinning 

Fig. 37 shows an attachment which is used to roll any bead or form. 
This tool, when in use, is inserted in the tailstock spindle in place 
of the regular center. It is adjustable for any diameter. The roll 
illustrated is for making a sharp turn, but rounds and other forms 
are used. The shell being spun by this tool should be held on a hol- 
low chuok. The roll is set at a point where the metal is to be turned 
over, and by its use the curve may be governed and made uniform 
with less skill than when the work is done by "air spinning." In 
addition, the spinning may be done in less time. This attachment, 
for some shapes, makes the use of sectional chucks unnecessary. 

Fig. 38 shows several spinning tools, the heads of which were turned 
in the lathe instead of being forged. This method of making spin- 
ning tools is believed to be original. The spinners prefer them to 
the tools which are forged in one piece, because the heads which 
are screwed to the shanks are made of the best quality of steel, such 



TOOLS AND METHODS 



33 



as the high-speed or self-hardening steel. The shapes are also better 
and the surfaces more true. The heads of these tools are all threaded 
with standard ^4-inch, %-inch and %-inch pipe taps, according to the 
size. Obviously, a spinner can have as many different shaped heads 
as may be required of each of the sizes given, and only one handle. 




Fig. 38. Metal Spinning 1 Tools with High-speed Steel Removable Heads 

The tapering threads in these heads insure that they will always 
screw on the shanks tightly no matter how often they may be replaced. 
The ^-inch size takes a %-inch cold rolled holder; the %-inch*, a 
%-inch holder, and the ^-inch, a %-inch holder. These will be found 
large enough for the heaviest work. The egg-shaped tool A is a good 




Fig. 39. Tools used for Trimming and Skimming Spun Work 

form for roughing or breaking down, as it has plenty of clearance 
on the heel, and a blunt point that will not tear the metal. This tool 
is shown in four sizes. The ball or spherical tool B is a good one to 
to use on curves and large sweeps. The tool C is elliptic, and is 
slightly different from A, as it has a blunter point. One or these 



34 



No. 57— METAL SPINNING 



heads is shown at D screwed onto a reducer by which it is held in the 
lathe chuck while being turned. These heads or points can also be 
turned while on the handle by using a steady rest. 




Fig. 40. A Group of Spinning Tools of Various Shapes 




Pig. 41. Another Group of Spinning Tools 

A group of trimmers, skimmers and edgers is shown in Fig, 39. 
Three skimmers of the built-up type are illustrated, the shanks being 
cf machine steel and the blades being riveted to the holders. These 



TOOLS AND METHODS 35 

blades are made of either high-speed or regular steel. Skimmers 
which are forged in the regular way from one piece of steel, are 
shown at B. A number of edgers C, which are made of high-speed or 
self-hardening steel, are also illustrated. These tools are used with- 
out handles until they are worn down short, after which tangs are 
forged on their ends and they are used in handles. Edgers are util- 
ized on all kinds of work for trimming the ends of the shells. The 
skimmer is seldom used on metal chucks, but mostly in connection 
with wooden chucks, where the metal cannot be smoothed down with 
a planisher. The skimmer is run over the metal lightly, taking a 
thin shaving and smoothing the uneven surfaces. It requires con- 




Fig. 42. Spinners' Pliers which are used for turning the Edge of the 
Metal •when making a Large Bend 

siderable skill to use this tool without wasting the metal. The sur- 
face of the work is finished with emery cloth after skimming. 

Figs. 40 and 41 show a number of spinning tools of various shapes. 
The letters A indicate the breaking-down or round-nosed tools of differ- 
ent sizes. This type of tool, which is finished smooth and has a blunt 
point, is used for forming corners and sharp angles, and it is the tool 
most commonly used by spinners. The planishers and burnishers B 
are used on all convex surfaces and for finishing on metal chucks 
where there is to be no skimming done. The tools C are known as 
hook or poker tools, and they are used to turn up beads or curves from 
the inside- of the shell. The holders having rollers are used for turn- 
ing over beads, the metal first being trimmed and turned to a vertical 
position. The other shapes shown are irregular tools for special work 
and they are not in daily use. 

Two pairs of spinners' pliers for turning over the edge of the metal 
when making large curves are shown in Fig. 42. The wedge-shaped 



36 No. 57— METAL SPINNING 

pieces shown in this illustration are used when breaking down or 
roughing shells to give a bearing to the metal in order to prevent it 
from wrinkling or buckling when changing its formation. These pieces 
are made of hard wood with the exception of the one to the right, 
which is of steel. When one of these pieces is in use it is held in 
the left hand at a point directly opposite the spinning tool, the metal 
being between the two. Wood is preferable in most cases, as it does 
not harden the metal blank. 

The tools shown in Fig. 43 are used in spinning steel. The round 
tools are of drawn brass, and they can be used where the steel tools 




Fig. 43. Some Spinning 1 Tools used in 
Working Steel 

cannot, for while a steel tool is perfection on brass, a brass tool is the 
only thing on steel. It wears out, however, much more rapidly than 
one of steel. The rolls shown in the center are used for breaking 
down steel shells. These tools are hardened and have hardened roller 
bearings. The handles are made of one-inch iron pipe, which is filled 
with lead to give weight and strength. 

Hard wood tools that are used for breaking down large thin copper 
blanks ranging from 2 to 5 feet in diameter are shown in Fig. 44. 
These tools are also used where the surface that the tool will cover 
without hardening the metal is important. Blanks which are broken 
down with these tools are finished with the regular types. 

The handles of spinning tools vary in diameter from 1*4 to 1% 
inch, and in length from 16 inches to 20 inches. The tools should 



TOOLS AND METHODS 37 

project from the handles from 9 to 18 inches, and the total length of 
the tool and handle should average from 30 to 34 inches. 

A group of wood working tools is shown in Fig. 45. These tools 
are of the type commonly used by spinners for turning the various 
shapes of wooden spinning chucks. As the tools illustrated are the 
kind regularly used for wood turning by patternmakers and other 
wood-workers generally, they will need no description. 

Preparation of the Metal 
Brass, copper, and German silver should be pickled after annealing in 
order to get the scale or oxide from the surface. There are furnaces 




Pig. 44. Wooden Tools which are used on Large 
Thin Copper Blanks 

that anneal without scaling by excluding the air when heating, but 
they are not in general use. A pickling bath may be made by using 
one part of oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) and five parts of water. The 
shells can be put in hot, or the bath can be heated by a coil of lead 
or copper pipe running through it. Steam in no case should enter 
the bath, as the iron in the feed pipe, will spoil the pickle. Any basket 
or box that may be used to hold the shells in the pickle should not 
contain any iron. If a box is used it should be held together with 
copper nails. The pickle can be used cold, but it will take a little 
longer time to remove the scale. As soon as the scale is free, which 
will be in about half an hour, the shells should be removed or washed 
thoroughly in running water. The shells should be allowed to dry 
before the next operation, which is that of spinning. A lead-lined 



38 



No. 57— METAL SPINNING 



wooden tank or an earthen jar may be used for holding the pickle. 
The pkkle which is used for steel should be about half as strong as 
that employed for brass. After the work is in this pickle, the latter 
should be brought to the boiling point, after which the pieces should 




Fig. 45. Wood-turniner Tools which are u« 
Spinning Chucks 



»d in turning 



be taken out and washed. They are then replaced in the fire for 
a short time to evaporate any acid that may remain after washing. 

Finished brass articles may be given different shades by dipping 
them in a solution consisting of one part aqua fortis (nitric acid) and 
two parts oil of vitriol. This solution should stand seven or eight 
hours to cool after mixing, and be kept ,in a crock immersed in a 
water bath. 



OUTLINE OP A COURSE IN SHOP AND DRAFTING-ROOM 

MATHEMATICS, MECHANICS, MACHINE DESIGN 

AND SHOP PRACTICE 

Any intelligent man engaged in mechanical work can acquire a well-rounded 
mechanical education by using as a guide in his studies the outline of the 
course in mechanical subjects given below. The course is laid out so as to 
make it possible for a man of little or no education to go ahead, beginning 
wherever he finds that his needs begin. The course is made up of units so that 
it may be followed either from beginning to end; or the reader may choose 
any specific subject which may be of especial importance to him. 



Preliminary Course in Arithmetic 
Jig Sheets 1A to 5A: — Whole Num- 
bers: Addition, Subtraction, Multi- 
plication, Division, and Factoring. 

Jig Sheets 6 A to 15 A: — Common 
Fractions and Decimal Fractions. 

Shop Calculations 

Reference Series No. 18. Shop 
Arithmetic for the Machinist. 

Reference Series No. 52. Advanced 
Shop Arithmetic for the Machinist. 

Reference Series No. 53. Use of 
Logarithmic Tables. 

Reference Series Nos. 54 and 55. 
Solution of Triangles. 

Data Sheet Series No. 16. Mathe- 
matical Tables. A book for general 
reference. 

Drafting-room Practice 
Reference Series No. 2. Drafting- 
room Practice. 

Reference Series No. 8. Working 

Drawings and Drafting-room Kinks. 

Reference Series No. 33. Systems 

and Practice of the Drafting-room. 

General Shop Practice 

Reference Series No. 10. Examples 
of Machine Shop Practice. 

Reference Series No. 7. Lathe and 
Planer Tools. 

Reference Series No. 25. Deep Hole 
Drilling. 

Reference Series No. 38. Grinding 
and Grinding Machines. 

Reference Series No. 48. Files and 
Filing. 

Reference Series No. 32. Screw 
Thread Cutting. 

Data Sheet Series No. 1. Screw 
Threads. Tables relating to all the 
standard systems. 

Data Sheet Series No. 2. Screws. 
Bolts and Nuts. Tables of standards. 

Data Sheet Series Nos. 10 and 11. 
Machine Tool Operation. Tables re- 
lating to the operation of lathes, screw 
machines, milling machines, etc. 

Reference Series Nos. 50 and 51. 



Principles and Practice of Assem- 
bling Machine Tools. 

Reference Series No. 57. Metal 
Spinning. 

Jig's and Fixtures 

Reference Series Nos. 41, 42 and 43. 
Jigs and Fixtures. 

Reference Series No. 3. Drill Jigs. 

Reference Series No. 4. Milling 
Fixtures. 

Punch and Die Work 

Reference Series No. 6. Punch and 
Die Work. 

Reference Series No. 13. Blanking 
Dies. 

Reference Series No. 26. Modern 
Punch and Die Construction. 

Tool Making- 
Reference Series No 64. Gage 
Making and Lapping. 

Reference Series No. 21. Measur- 
ing Tools. 

Reference Series No. 31. Screw 
Thread Tools and Gages. 

Data Sheet Series No. 3. Taps and 
Threading Dies. 

Data Sheet Series No. 4. Reamers, 
Sockets, Drills, and Milling Cutters. 

Hardening and Tempering 
Reference Series No. 46. Habden- 

ing and Tempering. 
Reference Series No. 63. Heat 

Treatment of Steel. 

Blacksmith Shop Practice 
and Drop Forging 

Reference Series No. 44. Machine 
Blacksmithing. 

Reference Series No. 61. Black- 
smith Shop Practice. 

Reference Series No. 45. Drop Forg- 
ing. 

Automobile Construction 

Reference Seines No. 59. Machines, 
Tools and Methods of Automobile 
Manufacture. 

Reference Series No. 60. Construc- 
tion and Manufacture of Automo- 
biles. 



Theoretical Mechanics 
Reference Series No. 5. First Prin- 
ciples of Theoretical Mechanics. 

Reference Series No. 19. Use of 
Formulas in Mechanics. 

Gearing- 
Reference Series No. 15. Spur 
Gearing. 

Reference Series No. 37. Bevel 
Gearing. 

Reference Series No. 1. Worm 
Gearing. 

Reference Series No. 20. Spiral 
Gearing. 

Data Sheet Series No. 5. Spur 
Gearing. General reference book con- 
taining tables and formulas. 

Data Sheet Series No. 6. Bevel, 
Spiral and Worm Gearing. General 
reference book containing tables and 
formulas. 

General Machine Design 

Reference Series No. 9. Designing 
and Cutting Cams. 

Reference Series No. 11. Bearings. 

Reference Series No. 56. Ball 
Bearings. 

Reference Series No. 58. Helical 
and Elliptic Springs. 

Reference Series No. 17. Strength 
of Cylinders. 

Reference Series No. 22. Calcula- 
tions of Elements of Machine De- 
sign. 

Reference Series No. 24. Examples 
of Calculating Designs. 

Reference Series No. 40. Fly- 
wheels. 

Data Sheet Series No. 7. Shafting, 
Keys and Keyways. 

Data Sheet Series No. 8. Bearings, 
Couplings, Clutches, Crane Chain 
and Hooks. 

Data Sheet Series No. 9. Springs, 
Slides and Machine Details. 

Data Sheet Series No. 19. Belt, 
Rope and Chain Drives. 

Machine Tool Design 
Reference Series No. 14. Details 

of Machine Tool Design. 

Reference Series No. 16. Machine 

Tool Drives. 

Crane Design 

Reference Series No. 23. Theory of 
Crane Design. 

Reference Series No. 47. Design 
of Electric Overhead Cranes. 

Reference Series No. 49. Girders 
for Electric Overhead Cranes. 



Steam and Gas Engine Design 

Reference Series Nos. 67 to 72, in- 
clusive. Steam Boilers, Engines, 
Turbines and Accessories. 

Data Sheet Series No. 15. Heat, 
Steam. Steam and Gas Engines. 

Data Sheet Series No. 13. Boilers 
and Chimneys. 

Reference Series No. 65. Formulas 
and Constants for Gas Engine De- 
sign. 

Special Course in Locomotive Design 

Reference Series No. 27. Boilers, 
Cylinders, Throttle Valve, Piston 
and Piston Rod. 

Reference Series No. 28. Theory 
and Design of Stephenson and Wal- 
schaert s Valve Motion. 

Reference Series No. 29. Smoke- 
box, Frames and Driving Machinery. 

Reference Series No. 30. Springs, 
Trucks, Cab and Tender. 

Data Sheet Series No. 14. Locomo- 
tive and Railway Data. 

Dynamos and Motors 
Reference Series No. 34. Care and 
Repair of Dynamos and Motors. 

Data Sheet Series No. 20. Wiring 
Diagrams, Heating and Ventilation, 
and Miscellaneous Tables. 

Reference Series Nos. 73 to 78, in- 
clusive. Principles and Applications 
of Electricity. 

Heating and Ventilation 
Reference Series No. 39. Fans, 

Ventilation and Heating. 

Reference Series No. 66. Heating 

and Ventilating Shops and Offices. 
Data Sheet Series No. 20. Wiring 

Diagrams, Heating and Ventilation, 

and Miscellaneous Tables. 

Iron and Steel 

Reference Series No. 36. Iron and 
Steel. 

Reference Series No. 62. Testing 
the Hardness and Durability of 
Metals. 

General Reference Books 

Reference Series No. 35. Tables 
and Formulas for Shop and Draft- 
ing-room. 

Data Sheet Series No. 12. Pipe and 
Pipe Fittings. 

Data Sheet Series No. 17. Mechan- 
ics and Strength of Materials. 

Data Sheet Series No. 18. Beam 
Formulas and Structural Design. 

Data Sheet Series No. 20. Wiring 
Diagrams, Heating and Ventilation 
and Miscellaneous Tables. 



No. 50. Principles and Practice of As- 
sembling- Machine Tools, Part I. 

No. 51. Principles and Practice of As- 
sembling" Machine Tools, Part II. 

No. 52. Advanced Shop Arithmetic for 
the Machinist. 

No. 53. Use of Logarithms and Logar- 
ithmic Tables. 

No. 54. Solution of Triangles, Part I. 
— Methods, Rules and Examples. 

No. 55. Solution of Triangles, Part II. 
— Tables of Natural Functions. 

No. 56. Ball Bearing's. — Principles of 
Design and Construction. 

No. 57. Metal Spinning 1 . — M a c h 1 n e s, 
Tools and Methods Used. 

No. 58. Helical and Elliptic Springs. — 
Calculation and Design. 

No. 59. Machines, Tools and Methods 
of Automobile Manufacture. 

No. 60. Construction and Manufacture 
of Automobiles. 

No. 61. Blacksmith Shop Practice. — 
Model Blacksmith Shop; Welding; Forg- 
ing of Hooks and Chains; Miscellaneous. 

No. 62. Hardness and Durability Test- 
ing of Metals. 

No. 63. Heat Treatment of Steel. — 
Hardening, Tempering, Case-Hardening. 

No. 64. Gage Making and Lapping. 

No. 65. Pormulas and Constants for 
Gas Bngine Design. 

No. 66. Heating and Ventilation of 
Shops and Offices. 

No. 67. Boilers. 

No. 68. Boiler Furnaces and Chim- 
neys. 

No. 69. Feed Water Appliances. 

No. 70. Steam Engines. 

No. 71. Steam Turbines. 

No. 72. Pumps, Condensers, Steam and 
Water Piping. 

No. 73. Principles and Applications of 
Electricity, Part I. — Static Electricity; 
Electrical Measurements; Batteries. 

No. 74. Principles and Applications of 
Electricity, Part II. — Magnetism; Elec- 
tro-Magnetism ; Electro-Plating. 

No. 75. Principles and Applications of 
Electricity, Part III. — Dynamos; Motors; 
Electric Railways. 

No. 76. Principles and Applications of 
Electricity, Part IV. — Electric Lighting, 

No. 77. Principles and Applications of 
Electricity, Part V. — Telegraph and Tele- 
phone. 

No. 78. Principles and Applications of 
Electricity, Part VI. — Transmission of 
Power. 



No. 79. Locomotive Building, Part I.— 
Main and Side Rods. 

No. 80. Locomotive Building, Part II. 
— Wheels; Axles; Driving Boxes. 

No. 81. Locomotive Building, Part III. 
— Cylinders and Frames. 

No. 82. Locomotive Building, Part IV. 
— Valve Motion. 

No. 83. Locomotive Building, Part V 
— Boiler Shop Practice. 

No. 84. Locomotive Building, Part VI. 
— Erecting. 

No. 85. Mechanical Drawing, Part I. 
— Instruments; Materials; Geometrical 
Problems. 

No. 86. Mechanical Drawing, Part II. 
— Projection. 

No. 87. Mechanical Drawing, Part III 
— Machine Details. 

No. 88. Mechanical Drawing, Part IV. 
— Machine Details. 

No. 89. The Theory of Shrinkage and 
Forced Fits. 

No. 90. Railway Repair Shop Practice. 

No. 91. Operation of Machine Tools. — 

The Lathe, Part 1. 

No. 92. Operation of Machine Tools. — 
Tin' Lathe, Part II. 

No. 93. Operation of Machine Tools. — 
Planer, Shaper, Slotter. 

No. 94. Operation of Machine Tools. — 
Drilling Machines. 

No. 95. Operation of Machine Tools. — 
Boring Machines. 

No. 96. Operation of Machine Tools. — 
Milling Machines, Part I. 

No. 97. Operation of Machine Tools. — 
Milling Machines, Part II. 

No. 98. Operation of Machine Tools. — 
Grinding Machines. 

No. 99. Automatic Screw Machine 
Practice, Part I. — Operation of the Brown 
& Sharpe Automatic Screw Machine. 

No. 100. Automatic Screw Machine 
Fractice, Part II. — Designing and Cutting 
Cams for the Automatic Screw Machine. 

No. 101. Automatic Screw Machine 
Practice, Part III. — Circular Forming and 
Cut-off Tools. 

No. 102. Automatic Screw Machine 
Practice, Part IV. — External Cutting 
Tools. 

No. 103. Automatic Screw Machine 
Practice, Part V — Internal Cutting Tools. 

No. 104. Automatic Screw Machine 
Practice, Part VI. — Threading Operations. 

No. 105. Automatic Screw Machine 
Practice. Part VII. — Knurling Operations. 

No. 106. Automatic Screw Machine 
Practice, Part VIII. — Cross Drilling, Burr- 
ing and Slotting Operations. 



ADDITIONAL TITLES WILL BE ANNOUNCED IN MACHINERY FROM TIME TO TIME 



MACHINERY'S DATA SHEET SERIES 

Machinery's Data Sheet Books include the well-known series of Data Sheets 
originated by Machinery, and issued monthly as supplements to the publication; 
of these Data Sheets over 500 have been published, and 6,000,000 copies sold. Re- 
vised and greatly amplified, they are now presented in book form, kindred sub- 
jects being grouped together. The purchaser may secure either the books on 
those subjects in which he is specially interested, or, if he pleases, the whole set at 
one time. The price of each book is 25 cents (one shilling) delivered anywhere 
in the world. 



CONTENTS OF DATA SHEET BOO 



No. 1. Screw Threads. — United States, 
"Whitworth, Sharp V- and British Associa- 
tion Standard Threads; Briggs Pipe 
Thread; Oil Well Casing Gages; Fire Hose 
Connections; Acme Thread; Worm 
Threads; Metric Threads; Machine, Wood, 
and Lag Screw Threads; Carriage Bolt 
Threads, etc. 

No. 2. Screws, Bolts and Nuts. — Fil- 
lister-head, Square-head, Headless, Col- 
lar-head and Hexagon-head Screws; Stand- 
ard and Special Nuts; T-nuts, T-bolts and 
Washers; Thumb Screws and Nuts; A. L. 
A. M. Standard Screws and Nuts; Machine 
Screw Heads; Wood Screws; Tap Drills; 
'Lock Nuts; Eye-bolts, etc. 

No. 3. Taps and Dies. — Hand, Machine, 
Tapper and Machine Screw Taps; Taper 
Die Taps; Sellers Hobs; Screw Machine 
Taps; Straight and Taper Boiler Taps; 
Stay-bolt, Washout, and Patch-bolt Taps; 
Pipe Taps and Hobs; Solid Square, Round 
Adjustable and Spring Screw Threading 
Dies. 

No. 4. Reamers, Sockets, Drills and 
Milling' Cutters. — Hand Reamers; Shell 
Reamers and Arbors; Pipe Reamers; Taper 
Pins and Reamers; Brown & Sharpe, 
Morse and Jarno Taper Sockets and Ream- 
ers; Drills; Wire Gages; Milling Cutters; 
Setting Angles for Milling Teeth in End 
Mills and Angular Cutters, etc. 

No. 5. Spur Gearing. — Diametral and 
Circular Pitch; Dimensions of Spur Gears; 
Tables of Pitch Diameters; Odontograph 
Tables; Rolling Mill Gearing; Strength of 
Spur Gears; Horsepower Transmitted by 
Cast-iron and Rawhide Pinions; Design of 
Spur Gears; Weight of Cast-iron Gears; 
Epicyclic Gearing. 

No. 6. Bevel, Spiral and Worm Gear- 
ing. — Rules and Formulas for Bevel 
Gears; Strength of Bevel Gears; Design 
of Bevel Gears; Rules and Formulas for 
Spiral Gearing; Tables Facilitating Calcu- 
lations; Diagram for Cutters for Spiral 
Gears; Rules and Formulas for Worm 
Gearing, etc. 

No. 7. Shafting, Keys and Keyways. — 
Horsepower of Shafting; Diagrams and 
Tables for the Strength of Shafting; 
Forcing, Driving, Shrinking and Running 
Fits; Woodruff Keys; United States Navy 
Standard Keys; Gib Keys; Milling Key- 
ways; Duplex Keys. 

No. 8. Bearings, Couplings, Clutches, 
Crane Chain and Hooks.— Pillow Blocks; 
Babbitted Bearings; Ball and Roller Bear- 
ings; Clamp Couplings; Plate Couplings; 
Flange Couplings; Tooth Clutches; Crab 
Couplings; Cone Clutches; Universal 
Joints; Crane Chain; Chain Friction; 
Crane Hooks; Drum Scores. 

No. 9. Springs, Slides and Machine 
Details.— Formulas and Tables for Spring 
Calculations; Machine Slides; Machine 
Handles and Levers; Collars; Hand 
Wheels; Pins and Cotters; Turn-buckles, 
etc. ' 

No. 10. Motor Drive, Speeds and Feeds, 
Change Gearing, and Boring Bars. — Power 
required for Machine Tools; Cutting 
Speeds and Feeds for Carbon and High- 
speed Steel; Screw Machine Speeds and 
Feeds; Heat Treatment of High-speed 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 



in iiiii mi mil mil inn ii 

013 960 723 5 # 



Steel Tools; Taps 

ing for the Lathe, cm 

etc. 

No. 11. Milling Machine Indexing, 
Clamping Devices and Planer Jacks. — 
Tables for Milling Machine Indexing; 
Change Gears for Milling Spirals; Angles 
for setting Indexing Head when Milling 
Clutches; Jig Clamping Devices; Straps 
and Clamps; Planer Jacks. 

No. 12. Pipe and Pipe Fittings. — Pipe 
Threads and Gages; Cast-iron Fittings; 
Bronze Fittings; Pipe Flanges; Pipe 
Bends; Pipe Clamps and Hangers; Dimen- 
sions of Pipe for Various Services, etc. 

No. 13. Boilers and Chimneys. — Flue 
Spacing and Bracing for Boilers; Strength 
of Boiler Joints; Riveting; Boiler Setting; 
Chimneys. 

No. 14. Locomotive and Railway Data. 
— Locomotive Boilers; Bearing Pressures 
for Locomotive Journals; Locomotive 
Classifications; Rail Sections; Frogs, 
Switches and Cross-overs; Tires; Tractive 
Force; Inertia of Trains; Brake Levers; 
Brake Rods, etc. 

No. 15. Steam and Gas Engines. — Sat- 
urated Steam; Steam Pipe Sizes; Steam 
Engine Design; Volume of Cylinders; 
Stuffiing Boxes; Setting Corliss Engine 
Valve Gears; Condenser and Air Pump 
Data; Horsepower of Gasoline Engines; 
Automobile Engine Crankshafts, etc. 

No. 16. Mathematical Tables. — Squares 
of Mixed Numbers; Functions of Frac- 
tions; Circumference and Diameters of 
Circles; Tables for Spacing off Circles; 
Solution of Triangles; Formulas for Solv- 
ing Regular Polygons; Geometrical Pro- 
gression, etc. 

No. 17. Mechanics and Strength of Ma- 
terials. — Work; Energy; Centrifugal 
Force; Center of Gravity; Motion; Fric- 
tion; Pendulum; Falling Bodies; Strength 
of Materials; Strength of Flat Plates; 
Ratio of Outside and Inside Radii of 
Thick Cylinders, etc. 

No. 18. Beam Formulas and Structural 
Design. — Beam Formulas; Sectional Mod- 
uli of Structural Shapes; Beam Charts; 
Net Areas of Structural Angles; Rivet 
Spacing; Splices for Channels and I- 
beams; Stresses in Roof Trusses, etc. 

No. 19. Belt, Rope and Chain Drives. — 
Dimensions of Pulleys; Weights of Pul- 
leys; Horsepower of Belting; Belt Veloc- 
ity; Angular Belt Drives; Horsepower 
transmitted by Ropes; Sheaves for Rope 
Drive; Bending Stresses in Wire Ropes; 
Sprockets for Link Chains; Formulas and 
Tables for Various Classes of Driving 
Chain. 

No. 20. Wiring Diagrams, Heating and 
Ventilation, and Miscellaneous Tables.— 
Typical Motor Wiring Diagrams; Resist- 
ance of Round Copper Wire; Rubber Cov- 
ered Cables; Current Densities for Vari- 
ous Contacts and Materials; Centrifugal 
Fan and Blower Capacities; Hot Water 
Main Capacities; Miscellaneous Tables: 
Decimal Equivalents, Metric Conversion 
Tables, Weights and Specific Gravity of 
Metals, Weights of Fillets, Drafting-room 
Conventions, etc. 



Machinery, the monthly mechanical journal, originator of the Reference and 
Data Sheet Series, is published in four editions— the Shop Edition, $1.00 a year; 
the Engineering Edition, $2.00 a year; the Railway Edition, $2.00 a year, and the 
Foreign Edition, $3.00 a year. 

The Industrial Press, Publishers of Machinery, 
49-55 Lafayette Street, New York City, U. S. A.